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## Appending to a list used in a for loop

Join me as we explore what happens when you keep appending to a list you are going over in a for loop.

# Appending to a list used in a for loop

Yesterday I posted a Python 🐍 code snippet with a major typo 👇

numbers = [42, 73, 0, 16, 10]

is_big = []
for num in numbers:
numbers.append(num > 10)

print("Done.")

Let's explore this accident.

Question ❓: what's the behaviour of this script?

This script never finishes!

(By the way, use Ctrl + C to interrupt an infinite loop!)

Can you see why?

Let me rewrite that for loop with a while loop that does more or less the same thing 👇

numbers = [42, 73, 0, 16, 10]

is_big = []
idx = 0
while idx < len(numbers):
num = numbers[idx]
numbers.append(num > 10)
idx += 1

Can you see now what is happening?

Let us clean this up a bit more.

First, notice that the list is_big isn't really used, so we can get rid of it.

Then, we can add some print calls to see what is happening real time:

numbers = [42, 73, 0, 16, 10]
idx = 0
while idx < len(numbers):
num = numbers[idx]
print(f"idx is {idx} and num is {num}.")
numbers.append(num > 10)
idx += 1

What are the successive values that numbers takes?

If you run this program, you'll be flooded with output 👇

idx is 0 and num is 42.
idx is 1 and num is 73.
idx is 2 and num is 0.
idx is 3 and num is 16.
idx is 4 and num is 10.
idx is 5 and num is True.
idx is 6 and num is True.
idx is 7 and num is False.
idx is 8 and num is True.
idx is 9 and num is False.
idx is 10 and num is False.
idx is 11 and num is False.
idx is 12 and num is False.
idx is 13 and num is False.
idx is 14 and num is False.

That's because we're iterating over a list that keeps growing!

But the output looks interesting, doesn't it?

For the first 5 lines, num is one of the original numbers.

Then, num becomes a Boolean value?!

Why/how?

It may look weird, but it makes sense:

The loop adds Booleans to the list because the expression inside numbers.append(...) is a comparison: num > 10.

So, for the first 5 iterations, we go over the original numbers in the list...

And check which ones are greater than 10.

Then, we add the results of those comparisons to the same list!

In the first iteration, we have:

• idx = 0
• num = 42
• num > 10 = True

So, we append True to the list.

Then, the list numbers becomes [42, 73, 0, 16, 10, True].

Therefore, later down the road, when idx becomes 5, num becomes True.

So, if num is True, why doesn't num > 10 raise an error?

Because Boolean values in Python 🐍 (that is, True and False) can also be seen as integers!

In other words, when need be, we can

• look at False as if it were 0; and
• look at True as if it were 1.

Thus, when num is True and we do the comparison num > 10, Python does the comparison 1 > 10.

The result, we know, is False.

After the first 5 iterations, numbers becomes this:

[42, 73, 0, 16, 10, True, True, False, True, False]

Then, idx goes from 5 to 9:

We take those 5 Boolean values and compare them with 10:

True > 10 is False, and so is False > 10.

Thus, after 5 more iterations, numbers becomes:

[42, 73, 0, 16, 10, True, True, False, True, False, False, False, False, False, False]

So, we reach a point where we keep appending False to the list, over and over again.

This particular situation arose because I made a mistake when writing my program.

And also because I didn't triple-check my code.

But one key thing we learn from this is that we shouldn't append to lists that are being used in for loops.

Sorry for the long ramble!

Here are three key takeaways:

• lists in for loops can be modified but shouldn't;
• Boolean values can be used as integers; and
• True corresponds to 1 and False corresponds to 0.

Follow me @mathsppblog for more hilarious code bugs!

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